|This language has||32 segments|
|Its Frequency index is||0.318251109 (average percentage of segments; 0.1: many very rare segments; 0.39: average; 0.7: many common segments)|
|The language has these sounds:||p ph "t "th k kh "ts "tsh cC f "s t.s t.sh s. z. C X m n N "l i y a u o(+ j wj w a. cCh "@.|
|Comment:||Mandarin is spoken in all of north of Changjiang River, a belt south of the Changjian from Qiujiang (Jiangxi) to Zhenjiang (jiangsu), Hubei except the southeastern corner Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, the northwestern part of Guangxi and the northwestern corner of Hunan.|
|Source(s):||Chao, Y-R. 1968. A Grammar of Spoken Chinese. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Cheng, C-C. 1973. A Synchronic Phonology of Mandarin Chinese. Mouton, The Hague.
Dow, F.D.M. 1972. An Outline of Mandarin Phonetics. Faculty of Asian Studies, Australian National University, Canberra.
(Hanyu Fangyan Gaiyao) 1960. [Outline of Chinese Dialects]. Wenzi Gaige Chubanshe, Beijing.
Karllgren, B. 1915-26. Etudes sur la phonologie Chinoise. Archives d'Etudes Orientales 15: 294-297.